see the 1996 and 1997 study results

1995 PACE Study Results

     The following is an analysis of student pre and post training test data from numerous clinical offices across the United States and Canada. All these students participated in either the VIP (a pre-PACE pilot program) or PACE processing and cognitive training programs. These programs are 10 weeks in length consisting of 30 hours of one-on-one training and prescribed home activities.

     In compiling this report we used all the data provided from the offices that had made their data available at the time of this report. This report is not meant to be highly statistical or scientific, but is written to provide the average lay person information regarding the past results of the PACE program.

     We believe the pre/post test results demonstrate the remarkable improvement in learning skills brought about by the PACE program. The fact that the results are similar in different locations with numerous trainers supports the fact that these results are reproducible.

Change in Attention Change in Processing Speed
Change in Visual Processing Change in Auditory Processing
Change in Memory Change in Comprehension
Change in Nonverbal Intelligence Overall Improvement in processing and Cognitive Skills
Changes reflected by the Woodcock-Johnson Test of Cognitive Ability Comparison of a Control (no training) and Experimental (training) Groups

Change in Nonverbal Intelligence

     The TONI-2 (Test Of Nonverbal Intelligence) and the NSI, a subtest from the SOI-LA (Structure of Intelligence - Learning Abilities Test), were used to evaluate the impact of the training program on the higher cognitive skills of reasoning, problem solving and logic. It should be noted that there were no training activities that were similar to these tests therefore the results are due to the transfer of the underlying skills being trained.

     The following are the changes in IQ (TONI-2) for those students that had an IQ below 100 prior to training.

 
Location of Study Average Change in IQ # of Students in Study
B. Berliner - NY 22 58
M. Fitzsimmons - ON 26 7
J. Wood - GA 22 22
G. White - MT 42 9
T. Poswilko - ND 12 6
B. Simon - TN 23 14
J. Dean - ID 23 10
R Vance-Ishak - MD 21 23

     For those students whom initial IQ (TONI-2) was at or above 100, the following changes were noted.

Location of Study Average Change in IQ # of Students in Study
B. Berliner - NY 12 49
M. Fitzsimmons - ON 10 6
J. Wood - GA 14 19
G. White - MT 3 5
T. Poswilko - ND 1 4
B. Simon - TN 8 23
J. Dean - ID 19 7
R Vance-Ishak - MD 9 26

     For those students who's initial performance on the NSI (logic and reasoning) of the SOI-LA was two years or more below their age, the following changes were noted.

Location of Study Average Change in IQ (years)
B. Berliner - NY 4.8
M. Fitzsimmons - ON 5.5
J. Wood - GA 4.6
G. White - MT 6.2
T. Poswilko - ND 4.1
B. Simon - TN 3.8
J. Dean - ID 4.6
R Vance-Ishak - MD 5.5

Overall Improvement in
Processing and Cognitive Skills

     To determine the overall average change in skills that were significantly deficient we have average the change of those test scores that were two or more years below age. The results are listed below:

Location of Study Average Change in Processing and Cognitive Skills (years)
B. Berliner - NY 3.7
M. Fitzsimmons - ON 4.0
J. Wood - GA 3.5
G. White - MT 4.6
T. Poswilko - ND 2.0
B. Simon - TN 3.6
J. Dean - ID 3.6
R Vance-Ishak - MD 3.8

Change in Attention

     Two tests (modified Groffman tracking test and the visual matching subtest of the Woodcock - Johnson Cognitive Test Battery) were was used to determine the impact of the training on attention. Listed below are the average changes in the test in years on those students who had tested two or more years below their age.

Location of Study Average Change in Attention (years)
B. Berliner - NY 4.2
M. Fitzsimmons - ON 3.8
J. Wood - GA 4.6
G. White - MT 4.1
T. Poswilko - ND 3.1
B. Simon - TN 3.5
J. Dean - ID 2.6
R Vance-Ishak - MD 4.1

     On the ACTeRS Attention profile, a subjective measurement of attention, completed by parents in four of the above locations, improvement ranged between 18 and 37.5 percentiles compared to a control group (didnít receive training) change of 6 percentiles.  

Change in Processing Speed

     Four tests were use to determine processing speed. The average change for these four tests for students two or more years below age is listed below.

Location of Study Average Change in Processing Speed (years)
B. Berliner - NY 3.3
M. Fitzsimmons - ON 3.1
J. Wood - GA 3.7
G. White - MT 3.8
T. Poswilko - ND 1.7
B. Simon - TN 3.6
J. Dean - ID 2.6
R Vance-Ishak - MD 3.3

Change in Visual Processing

      Four tests were use to determine visual processing skills. The average change for these four tests for students two or more years below age is listed below.

Location of Study Average Change in Visual Processing (years)
B. Berliner - NY 3.8
M. Fitzsimmons - ON 3.0
J. Wood - GA 4.4
G. White - MT 3.2
T. Poswilko - ND 2.0
B. Simon - TN 2.4
J. Dean - ID 2.7
R Vance-Ishak - MD 2.6

Change in Auditory Processing

     Auditory processing training procedures have recently been added to the PACE program, therefore the data is limited. However, in the first four students who participated in those procedures, the average gain in the seven tests scores which were below grade level, was an increase of 5.9 grades! (see Cognitive Changes Reflected by the Woodcock-Johnson Test of Cognitive Ability).

Location of Study Average Change in Auditory Processing (grades)
E. Summons - OH 5.9

Change in Memory

     For those students whose initial performance was two years or more below their age on the short term visual memory subtest of the SOI-LA, the following changes were noted:

Location of Study Average Change in Memory (years)
B. Berliner - NY 4.3
M. Fitzsimmons - ON 3.0
J. Wood - GA 3.7
G. White - MT 4.7
T. Poswilko - ND 2.9
B. Simon - TN 3.3
J. Dean - ID 1.5
R Vance-Ishak - MD 3.1

Change in Comprehension

      One office used three subtests from the SOI-LA to evaluate the effects of the training on comprehension. The tests used were the CMR (ability to see relations between ideas or meaning of words), CMU (vocabulary and verbal concepts) and the ESC (ability to classify symbolic information).

  Average Change in Comprehension (years) # of Students in Study
CMR (Relations) 2.2 58
CMU (Vocabulary) 2.6 7
ESC (Classification) 2.2 22

Changes reflected by the
Woodcock-Johnson Test of Cognitive Ability

     Recently, some of the offices providing the processing and cognitive training started using the Woodcock-Johnson Test of Cognitive Ability to evaluate change in cognitive skills. Although at the time of this report only four students had completed the pre and post tests, the results support the exceptional changes noted in the other test instruments and are included for your review.

Student #1 #2 #3 #4
Age 11 22 11 10
Test (in grades) PRE POST PRE POST PRE POST PRE POST
Long Term Memory 3.2 16.9 5.1 16.9 0 5.1 2.3 16.9
Short Term Memory 4.6 16.9 10 16.9 5.5 6.7 3.5 4.6
Processing Speed 16.9 16.9 7.4 16.9 4.3 5.8 5.8 16.9
Sound Blending 9.4 13.1 16.9 16.9 9.4 16 1.4 4.6
Visual Closure 8.8 16.9 12 16.9 3.4 16 6.6 12
Visual Recognition 16 16.9 4.8 16.9 16 16 6 16.9

Comparison of a Control (no training) and
Experimental (training) Groups

      The PACE training program was developed and expanded within a clinical setting. Therefore the bulk of the data collected is of a clinical nature and not designed with a ridged study in mind. However, two offices did run a small control study which showed that those students who were not trained displayed little or no change in processing and cognitive skills after 10 weeks. Those students who were trained showed a 2.2 and 2.8 average gain in skills.

Study # stud- ents FIXV- PS FIXH- PS SA & PS RF STM VISZ NSI VMTR Avg

Without Training

IN CM C 10 -1 0.5 0 0.3 -1 0 0.2 0.9 -0.01
IL DH C 13 0 0 0.1 0 0 0.3 0.1 0.7 0.15

With Training

IN CM X 8 2.4 2 1.9 1.6 2.3 1.7 2.8 2.6 2.16
IL DH X 6 1.8 2.1 1.7 2.8 3.6 3.6 3.7 2.9 2.77

FIXV = calling out a vertical column of numbers (processing speed); FIXH = calling out a horizontal row of numbers (processing speed); TRCK = Tracking a line with other lines present (processing speed and selective attention);WJ3 = Visual matching from the Woodcock-Johnson Cognitive Test Battery (processing speed); RFRQ = Reversal frequency test from Gardner
    The following tests are from SOI-LA (Structure of Intellect - Learning Abilities Test): VISZ = the ability to picture a complete system of ideas in the mind - critical for understanding long sentences, directions, and instructions; CFU = test of visual closure - to recognize familiar figures that have been partially obscured; CFS = ability to comprehend arrangements and positions of visual objects in space; CFT = ability to recognize a figure when it has been rotated into a new orientation; EFU = the ability to evaluate and discriminate among complex figures; VMEM = visual memory; STM = short term memory; AMEM = auditory memory; VMTR = eye-hand speed and coordination; NSI = logic and form reasoning; CMR = ability to see relations between ideas or meaning of words; CMU = test of vocabulary and verbal concepts; ESC = ability to classify symbolic information.
    TONI-2 = Test of Nonverbal Intelligence (measures the ability to reason without words and to solve spatially defined problems. An IQ score of 100 is considered average.)

see the 1996 and 1997 study results
Please use browser's back button to return